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Integral Coastline Plan


The importance and problem of the Mediterranean coastline
Calvia: a clear example of the decline of a mature tourist destination
From the Agenda Local 21 to the integral management of the coastline

General frame and aims of the PILC
The 5 aims of the PILC
The possible future scenes
9 strategies y 30 accions for the recovery and sustainable management of the coastline of Calvià
Final document of the Plan de Acción and the execution of the accions

The importance and problems of the Mediterranean Coastline

Nowadays the Mediterranean coastline continues attracting millions of tourists from all parts of the world who are looking for a good climate, diversity in the landscapes, rich culture and quality services.


The boost that tourism gives to the economies and the quality of life in some Mediterranean countries has been spectacular.  However, a high environmental price, that was already apparent in the 1970's, triggered the creation of the Action Plan for the Mediterranean (MAP), with the aim of making the economic development compatable with the conservation of the Mediterranean.


The coastline is double fragile in front of turistic expansion.  On the one hand the human pressure has been concentrated on a relatively narrow strip of land.  On the other hand it presents a variety of dynamic ecosystems, extremely complex and which are extremely fragile in front of any kind of agression.

The conflicts on the coastline are high.  Mainly those that are created by difference economic activities.

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Calvia: a clear example of a mature tourist destination in decline

The municipality of  Calvia is located on the SE coast of Majorca, in the North-West of the Mediterrnean. With a surface area of  around 145 km2 and with  aproximately 54 Km. of a rich and diverse coastline, it is a municipality basically dedicted to tourism with around 44.0000 permanent inhabitantes  , and more than 1,7 millon  tourists anually.
The economy of  Calvia is based on a tourism of sun and sand. The economic evolucion , social, demografic and environmental originated in the tourist boom of the 1960's. In a short time it produced an increase in the economy of the municipality, at the expense of an excessive consumption of the coastal territory. At the end of the 1980's  Calvià had become a devalued, over-crowded tourist destination,  with little respect for the environment and with a a low quality hotel offer in decline.

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From the Agenda Local 21 to the integral management of the coastline 

Conscious of the unfeasability of the model of an unlimited tourist growth in Calvia, in the 1990's a profound innovation of the policies of local and tourist development was pledged, compiling, first of all a Plan of Excellence and in 1995 the Agenda Local 21, following the guidelines of the Rio Summit and the  5º programme of the U.E.

The third Line of Action proposed by  AL21 of Conserving the natural maritime and land heritage triggered off an idea that had already sharply emerged as a result of the  MAP: the need for an Integral Management of the Coastline. This type of planning, based on the principles of sustainability applied to the coastal areas, was presented at the Rio Summit  (1992), urging the participating countries to promote this kind of Management at all administrative level.  Since then, the experiences of integral management of the coastline has gradually increased.

In 2001, the municipality fo  Calvia, together with the Province of Rimini (Italy) received financing for a European project LIFE Environment (MED-COAST S-T) dedicated to develope Strategies and tools for a sustainable tourism in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean. In the case of Calvia, the main target of this project was to carry out the Integral Management Plan of the Calvia Coastline (PILC).

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General frame and aims of PILC

On the Calvia coast there are 5 different natural habitats: 35,5 Km. of rocky coasts, 4,5 Km. of sandy coasts, 3 salt marshes, 10 islets, and 7.000 Hectares. of coastal seas, considered up to a depth of 50 m.

In these surroundings, contrasting areas are combined. On the one hand by areas under great pressure from tourism and on the other hand by areas that present a marked level of preservation..

The natural systems of the coastal area are those that present not only a higher level of environmental  degradation, but also the worst prospects of recovery.

The AL21 of Calvia allowed us to confirm that it has been the excessive growth in tourism and building that has exceeded the load factor of these ecosystems.

The PILC is presented as a step towards an alternative future. As a result of the negative results obtained in compiling the assessment of the Calvia Coastline, the need of carrying out a sustainable management was introduced, under the understanding that coastline management is that which fulfills the present needs, without compromising the ability of future generations of satisfying their own.

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The 5 aims of the PILC are:

  • Slow down the tendencies, uses and procedures that have a negative bearing on the coastal area ofCalvia.
  • Propose conduct programmes for the rehabilitation and integral management of the Calvia coastline
  • Be an instrument of cultural awareness on the sustainability of the coastal area.
  • Be a participating experience and harmonization with the key public and private acts.
  • Serve as a conceptual and practical example of the integral management of the coastline in tourist areas.

The basic components of the PILC are centred on the following concepts:

  • Interpretation and detailed knowledge of the coast.
  • The participation of  public and private agents.
  • Propose actions oriented towards the protection, rehabilitation and sustainable management of the coastline.
  • Monitoring of the evolucion of the coastal system by means of precise indicators.
  • Programmes to spread the campaign locally and in other tourist destinations of the Mediterranean.

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Possible future scenes

We are introducing two possible future scenes for 2015, on the basis of if there will be or not an PILC.

-The scene of rehabilitation without the intervention of the PILC (ERI-PILC).
The state of the intended scene considered for 2015, in which only some of the initiatives already introduced would be maintained or would be in an experimental phase of the AL21, is bleak. An increase of the antropization and a low level of recovery would be recorded.
The area that is seen to be most affected would be the rocky coastline, due to the consumption of the land that would come about due to the rapid growth of housing.

-The alternative: the scene of rehabilitation with the intervention of the PILC (ERI+PILC).
The rehabilitation scene ERI+PILC is considered by means of a projection of the inicators studied in 2015, if all the measures considered in the PILC are carried out. The aim of this scene isn't to arrive at the ideal value but to decrease the risks and to correct the deficiencies seen, in the most possible way..
If all the proposed actions are introduced, an improvement in the level of antropization would be detected, the risk of degredation would be decreased and the level of recovery would be increased. 
The recovery would be slow, it would be considered anti-productive to try for a rapid recovery owing to the economic and social imbalances that would occur.

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9 strategies and 30 actions for the recovery and the sustainable management of the Calvia coastline

The PILC proposes a total of 30 actions of recovery and protection, in the framework of 9 main strategies that aspires to obtain a greater sustainability in the coastal management of the Calvia coastline.

1. REDUCTION OF THE CONSUMPTION OF THE COASTLINE AND GRADUAL RECUPERATION OF THE PUBLIC MARITIME-TERRESTRAL DOMAIN.

1.1.  Increase the promotion of the first residence with respect to the second residence.

1.2.  Modification of the PGOU to gradually recover the public maritime-terrestral domain.

1.3.  Fulfill and extend the Clearance Plan of 94.

1.4.  Reduce the issuing of  licences for new buildings and promote rehabilitation.

1.5.  Elimination of the black spots that imply unnecessary consumption, or illegal, of the coastal area territory

1.6.  Limitation on the number of permanent moorings.


2. DECREASE THE HUMAN IMPACT IN COASTAL AREAS OF AN ECOLOGICAL INTEREST

2.1.  Increase the level of legal protection of the islets.

2.2.  Boost sea-bed regulation plans.

2.3.  Promote a surveillance plan and a regulation of coastal activities. 

3. PROMOTE THE RECOVERY AND NATURAL (SUSTAINABLE) MANAGEMENT OF THE SANDY COAST

3.1.  Avoid artificial regeneration .

3.2.  Extend and widen the systems for retaining sand.

3.3.  Revegetate part of the sandy areas to help with the sand retention..

3.4.  Analysis Plan and if need be the elimination of architectural barriers that interfere with the coastline dynamics.

3.5.  Sustainable management of the beaches thoughout the year.

4. FORESEE AND REDUCE THE PRESENCE AND THE IMPACT OF WASTE PRODUCTS AND MARINE CONTAMINATION

4.1.  Improve the purifier and increase the reuse of purified water.

4.2.  Plan of control and reorganization of rainfall, torrents and pipe network.

4.3.  Promote and encourage the adoption of Environmental Management Systems.

4.4.  Action plan in case of a possible pouring of toxic or dangerous substances in the sea.

4.5.  Plan to eliminate floating waste.

5. RECUPERATION OF DAMP ZONES

5.1.  Creation of a semi-natural damp area with the capacity of tertiary purifying in Santa Ponsa.

5.2.  Recovery and introduction of small damp zones near to the torrents.

6. CONTROL DE PLAGUES AND INVASION OF EXOTIC SPECIES

6.1.  Elimination periodically of invading plants and control of seagull and rat population.

6.2.  Improve the control of urban waste.

7. REDUCE Y PREVENT THE COASTAL EROSION AND FLOODING 

7.1.  Plan to fight against erosion and flooding.

8. PROMOTE THE RECUPERATION AND CONSERVATION OF THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL HERITAGE OF THE COASTAL AREA.

8.1.  Boost the Archeological Park of Puig de na Morisca and improve the management and spread of the historial-artistic heritage.

8.1.  Boost the Archeological Park of Puig de na Morisca and improve the management and spread of the historial-artistic heritage.

9. SPREAD THE KNOWLEDGE AND PROMOTE THE EDUCATION AND INVESTIGATION ON ASPECTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COASTLINE.

9.1.  Creation of a Marine Centre, with educational funtions, museum, guided visits, etc.

9.2. Municipal funding for programmes of environmental education in coastal areas.

9.3.  Promote the investigation on aspects related with the coastline and its integral management.

9.4.  Creation of a guide of good practices for the conservation of the coastline.

9.5.  Promote training on the environment for the coastal workers.

9.1.  Creation of a Marine Centre, with educational funtions, museum, guided visits, etc.

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Final Document of the Action Plan and the execution of the actions

The series of strategies and actions of the  PILC derive from the study of a particular area (Santa Ponça). Being representative as an example, the majority of the actions can be applied to all the Calvia coastline. Nevertheless, it is considered essential to carry out an assessment of the rest of the coastline by means of the integral indicators, before compiling the final Plan of Action.

Once the full assessment of the coastline is completed, we will proceed to execute the plan of action. This process involves at the same time the execution of a Monitoring and Assessment plan

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