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The region where Calvià is located today has been inhabited for thousands of years. The origins of our village date back to prehistoric times, and we have been living here ever since, each period of history with different characteristics.
The Bronze Age (1800-1000 / 850 BC): the first inhabitants of Calvià
The oldest archaeological remains found around Calvià belong to the Bronze Age. Although there were probably human settlements before that, its still a supposition: not remains have been found yet.
How do we identify the remains of Balearic Bronze? Visually, especially for Mallorca and Menorca, we have identified naviform structures, elongated architecture shapes as horseshoes; and funeral hypogea carved into the sandstone.
We have identified three major archaeological periods: the Early Bronze Age (1800-1500 BC), the Bronze Naviform I (1500-1100 BC) and the Late Bronze or Naviform II (1100-850 BC).
If you want to know more about the Bronze Age in Calvià and our islands download the research work of the first indications of human occupation in the Balearic Islands to the Bronze Age, by professors at the UIB M. Calvo and V. Guerrero.
Calvia in the Talayotic period (850-650 / 550 BC)
In the final phases of the Bronze Balear a trend is observed that reflects a very complex time for the Balearic inhabitants of the time. This moment will end the Talayotic culture. Communities that gave name to this culture lived in Mallorca and Menorca from the Iron Age, and left a strong imprint on the landscape of both islands by monumental buildings such as the talayots, staggered turriformes, etc.
If you want to know more about the Talayotic in Mallorca Calvia and download the research work Talayotic Culture, professors of the UIB Calvo and Guerrero.
The post-talayótic period (650 / 550-123 BC)
Culture Postalayótica is the last phase of the prehistory of the Balearic Islands. We observe profound changes in the social, economic and ideological structure of these communities. The arrival of the Roman consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus in 123 BC, ending the period.
Unlike other times, in which architecture helped us differentiate their phases, in order to define the phases of Postalayótic we are guided by the Punic and Roman invasion. It will be the dynamic between indigenous communities and invaders that will guide us through the different stages.
If you want to know more download the document Postalayótic Culture. PDF
Calviá in Roman times (123 B.C. - 903 AD)
Between the Roman conquest of the insulæ Baliares (Mallorca and Menorca) and the Islamic conquest of 902-903 there is a long period in which Romans, Vandals and Byzantines left their mark amongst us.
From the second century BC to the fourth AD Mallorca and Menorca were part of the Roman Hispania and evolved with the Republic and the Empire. The Lower Empire, the time of disintegration of Roman civilization, strengthens the cultural dynamics of the conquered Balearics, and from the seventh century until the Muslim conquest in the tenth, -the time of the Visigoth reign on the Mainland- we hardly have any remains or chronicles, it's what we call the dark Ages.
You can read the research work on Romans, Vandals and Byzantines: a historical draft of dominated islands, by UIB professors Cau, Mas and Vallori.
Medieval Calvia: from Muslim Mallorca to King Jaume
The Islamic period in Mallorca can be divided into five phases: Caliphate (903-1015), Denia-Balearic Islands (1015-1087) taifa, Balearic Islands taifa(1087-1115), Almoravid period (1115-1203) and, finally, Almohad period (1203-1229).
Muslim culture reaches the Balearics before the conquest of the Mainland due to to our contact with the Byzantine Empire and the Mediterranean trade routes. Also with the pirates of North Africa, whose looting chroniclers tell us about. Subsequently Mallorcan of the Denia taifa became privateers, chasing and capturing Genoese and Florentine merchants.
Research work Calvià during the Islamic Middle Ages, prepared by researchers at the UIB and technicians of our Town Hall, analyzes in depth the legacy of that time in our closest environment.
Conquest by King Jaume I
There are events that change history of a region, influencing the future of a territory and its inhabitants. The conquest of Mallorca by King Jaume I, in late 1229, is one of them.
In fact, the municipality of Calvià and the Santa Ponsa had a decisive role in the invasion and conquest: it was here that the landing occurred and the first battles with the troops of the wali Abû Yahyiâ took place. Right up until today we commemorate the efforts of both in our Fiestas del Rey Jaume on the beach.
We have prepared the work Calvià and the conquest of James I to discover in depth the conquest process that changed everything.
Christian Calvia in the late Middle Ages
After the conquest of King James and the foundation of the Regne de les Mallorques the incorporation of the Balearic begins the Christian kingdom of Aragon begins with all its vicissitudes. In 1285 Prince Alfons III the Liberal arrives on the island of Sa Porrassa, and in 1343 the final annexation by Pedro IV the Ceremonious occurs.
The research work Calvià during medieval times in Mallorca explains how the political fluctuations on the Mainland influenced our island and our town.
Modern era (1492 AD to 1811 AD)
The contributions to history of Calvià from the Renaissance are relatively scarce. Our population were mainly peasants throughout the following centuries, scattered between the mountains and the coast, with difficult land communications.
Professor Deyá Bauzá of the University of the Balearic Islands analyses in his study Calvià in the modern era the role of our municipality in the agermanat movement, demographics and the main economic activities.
The twentieth century in Calvià
Calvià contemporary history has been complex, varied and nuanced. We have lived the changes that have happened in Mallorca and the whole Spanish State, and have determined our life. We have also managed to implement our own character in these changes, as reflected in our adaptation to industry and tourism.
Research work Calvià in the contemporary era, developed by researchers at the UIB and technicians of our Town Hall, helps us better understand Calvià in recent times and also think about the future of our municipality.