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Integral Coastline Plan


The importance andproblem of the Mediterranean coastline
Calvia:a clear example of the decline of a mature touristdestination
From theAgenda Local 21to the integralmanagement of the coastline

General frame andaims of thePILC
The 5aims of thePILC
The possible future scenes
9 strategies y 30 accionsfor the recovery and sustainable management of the coastline ofCalvià
Final document of the Plan de Acciónand theexecution of theaccions

The importanceand problemsof the Mediterranean Coastline

Nowadays the Mediterranean coastline continues attractingmillions of tourists from all parts of the world who are looking for a good climate, diversity in the landscapes,rich culture and quality services.


The boost that tourism gives to the economies and the quality of life in someMediterranean countries has been spectacular. However, a highenvironmental price, that was already apparentin the 1970's, triggered the creation of the Action Plan for the Mediterranean (MAP), with the aim of making the economic development compatable with the conservation of the Mediterranean.


The coastline is double fragile in front of turistic expansion. On the one hand the human pressurehas beenconcentrated on a relatively narrow strip of land. On the other hand it presents a variety of dynamic ecosystems, extremely complex and which are extremelyfragile in front of any kind of agression.

The conflicts on the coastline are high. Mainly those thatare created by difference economic activities.

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Calvia:a clear exampleof a maturetourist destination in decline

Themunicipality of Calvia is located on the SE coast of Majorca, inthe North-West of the Mediterrnean.With a surface area of around 145 km2and with aproximately 54 Km. of a rich and diverse coastline, it is a municipality basically dedicted to tourism with around 44.0000 permanent inhabitantes ,and more than1,7 millon tourists anually.
The economy of Calviais based on a tourism of sun and sand.The economicevolucion , social, demografic and environmental originated in the tourist boom of the 1960's. Ina short time it produced an increase in the economy of the municipality, at the expense of an excessiveconsumption of the coastal territory. At the end of the 1980's Calviàhad becomea devalued, over-crowded tourist destination, with little respect for the environment and with a a low qualityhotel offer in decline.

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From the Agenda Local 21to the integral management of the coastline

Conscious of the unfeasability ofthe model of an unlimited tourist growth inCalvia, in the 1990'sa profound innovation of the policies of local and tourist development was pledged,compiling, firstof alla Plan of Excellence and in1995the Agenda Local 21, following the guidelines of the Rio Summit and the 5 programmeof theU.E.

The third Line of Action proposed by AL21 of Conserving the natural maritime and land heritage triggered off an idea that had already sharply emerged as a result of the MAP: the needfor an Integral Management of the Coastline. This type of planning, based on the principles of sustainability applied to the coastal areas, was presentedat the Rio Summit (1992), urging the participating countries to promote this kind of Management at all administrative level. Since then, the experiences of integralmanagement of the coastline hasgradually increased.

In2001,the municipality fo Calvia, together with the Provinceof Rimini (Italy) received financing for a European project LIFEEnvironment (MED-COAST S-T) dedicated todevelope Strategiesand tools for a sustainable tourism in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Inthe caseof Calvia,the main target of this project was to carry out the IntegralManagement Plan of the Calvia Coastline (PILC).

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General frame andaims ofPILC

On the Calvia coast there are5 different natural habitats: 35,5 Km.of rockycoasts, 4,5 Km. of sandy coasts, 3 salt marshes, 10 islets,and 7.000 Hectares. of coastal seas, considered up to a depth of 50 m.

In these surroundings, contrasting areas are combined. On the one hand by areas under great pressure from tourism and on the other hand by areas that present a marked level of preservation..

The natural systems of the coastal area are those that present not only a higher level of environmental degradation, but also the worst prospects of recovery.

The AL21ofCalvia allowed us to confirm that it has been the excessive growth in tourism and building that has exceeded the load factor of these ecosystems.

ThePILC is presented as a step towards an alternative future. As a result of the negative results obtained incompiling the assessment of the Calvia Coastline, the need of carrying out a sustainable management was introduced,underthe understanding that coastline management is thatwhich fulfills the present needs, without compromising the ability of future generations of satisfying their own.

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The 5aimsof thePILC are:

  • Slow down the tendencies, uses and procedures that have a negative bearing on the coastal area ofCalvia.
  • Propose conduct programmes for the rehabilitationand integralmanagement of the Calvia coastline
  • Be an instrument of cultural awareness on the sustainability of the coastal area.
  • Be a participating experience and harmonization with thekey public and private acts.
  • Serve as a conceptual and practical example of the integral management of the coastline in tourist areas.

The basiccomponents of thePILC are centred on the following concepts:

  • Interpretationand detailed knowledge of the coast.
  • Theparticipationof publicand private agents.
  • Propose actions oriented towards the protection, rehabilitation and sustainable management of the coastline.
  • Monitoringof the evolucion of the coastal system by means of precise indicators.
  • Programmesto spreadthe campaign locally and in other tourist destinations of the Mediterranean.

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Possible future scenes

We areintroducing two possible future scenes for2015, onthe basis of if there will be or not an PILC.

-The scene of rehabilitationwithout theinterventionof thePILC (ERI-PILC).
The state of the intended sceneconsidered for 2015,in which only some of the initiatives alreadyintroduced would be maintained orwould bein an experimental phase of the AL21, is bleak.An increase of the antropization and a low level of recovery would be recorded.
The area that is seen to be most affected would be the rocky coastline, due to the consumption of the land that would come about due to the rapid growth of housing.

-The alternative:the sceneof rehabilitationwith theinterventionof thePILC (ERI+PILC).
Therehabilitation scene ERI+PILCisconsidered by means ofa projection of the inicators studied in2015, if all the measuresconsideredin the PILC are carried out. The aim of this scene isn't to arrive at theideal value but to decrease the risks andto correct the deficiencies seen, in the most possible way..
If all the proposed actions are introduced, an improvement in the level of antropization would be detected,the risk of degredation would bedecreased and the level of recovery would be increased.
The recovery would be slow, it would be considered anti-productive to try for a rapid recovery owing to the economic and social imbalances that would occur.

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9 strategies and 30 actionsfor the recovery and the sustainable management of the Calvia coastline

ThePILC proposesa totalof 30 actions of recovery and protection, in the framework of 9 main strategies that aspires toobtain a greater sustainability in the coastal management of the Calvia coastline.

1. REDUCTIONOF THE CONSUMPTION OF THE COASTLINE AND GRADUAL RECUPERATION OF THE PUBLIC MARITIME-TERRESTRAL DOMAIN.

1.1. Increase the promotion of the first residence with respect to the second residence.

1.2. Modificationof thePGOUto gradually recover the public maritime-terrestral domain.

1.3.Fulfill and extend theClearance Plan of94.

1.4. Reducetheissuing of licences for new buildings and promote rehabilitation.

1.5. Eliminationof the black spots that imply unnecessary consumption, or illegal, of the coastal area territory

1.6. Limitationon the number ofpermanent moorings.


2. DECREASE THE HUMAN IMPACT IN COASTAL AREASOF AN ECOLOGICAL INTEREST

2.1.Increase the level of legal protection of the islets.

2.2.Boost sea-bed regulation plans.

2.3. Promote a surveillance plan and a regulation of coastal activities.

3. PROMOTE THE RECOVERY AND NATURAL (SUSTAINABLE) MANAGEMENT OF THE SANDY COAST

3.1.Avoid artificial regeneration.

3.2. Extend andwiden the systems for retaining sand.

3.3. Revegetate part of the sandy areas to help with the sand retention..

3.4.Analysis Planand if needbethe elimination of architectural barriers that interfere with the coastline dynamics.

3.5.Sustainable management of the beaches thoughout the year.

4. FORESEE AND REDUCE THE PRESENCE AND THE IMPACT OF WASTE PRODUCTS AND MARINE CONTAMINATION

4.1.Improve the purifier and increase the reuse of purified water.

4.2. Planof controland reorganization of rainfall, torrents and pipe network.

4.3. Promote andencourage theadoptionof Environmental Management Systems.

4.4. Action planin case of a possible pouring of toxic or dangerous substances in the sea.

4.5. Planto eliminate floatingwaste.

5. RECUPERATION OF DAMP ZONES

5.1. Creationof a semi-natural damp area with the capacity of tertiary purifying in Santa Ponsa.

5.2. Recovery and introduction of small damp zones near to the torrents.

6. CONTROL DE PLAGUES AND INVASION OF EXOTIC SPECIES

6.1. Elimination periodically ofinvading plants and control of seagull and rat population.

6.2.Improve the control of urban waste.

7. REDUCE Y PREVENT THE COASTAL EROSIONAND FLOODING

7.1. Planto fight against erosion and flooding.

8. PROMOTE THE RECUPERATION AND CONSERVATION OF THE CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL HERITAGE OF THE COASTAL AREA.

8.1.Boost the Archeological Park ofPuig de na Morisca and improve the management and spread of the historial-artistic heritage.

8.1.Boost the Archeological Park ofPuig de na Morisca and improve the management and spread of the historial-artistic heritage.

9. SPREAD THE KNOWLEDGE AND PROMOTE THEEDUCATION AND INVESTIGATION ON ASPECTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE COASTLINE.

9.1. Creation of aMarine Centre, with educational funtions, museum, guided visits, etc.

9.2. Municipal funding for programmes of environmental education in coastal areas.

9.3.Promote the investigation on aspects related with the coastline and its integral management.

9.4. Creation of a guide of good practices for the conservation of the coastline.

9.5. Promote training on the environment for the coastal workers.

9.1. Creation of aMarine Centre, with educational funtions, museum, guided visits, etc.

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Final Documentof theAction Planand the execution of the actions

Theseries of strategies and actionsof the PILC derive from the study of a particular area (Santa Ponça).Being representative as an example, the majority of the actions can be applied to all the Calvia coastline. Nevertheless, it is consideredessential to carry out an assessment of the rest of the coastline by means of the integral indicators, before compiling the final Plan of Action.

Once the full assessment of the coastline is completed, we will proceed toexecute the plan of action.This processinvolves at thesame timethe execution of aMonitoring andAssessmentplan

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